The Proto-Mongols and Tungus living in Mongolia; He united the great Hun Empire established by the Turks. From the 3rd century onwards, the region was dominated by the Turks. Until the beginning of the thirteenth century; Great Hun Empire, Göktürk, Uygur, Karakutay was dominated by the states. In 1205, the first Mongol State was established in Mongolia with the tribes united by the Genghis Khan (see Mongols). When Genghis Khan died in 1227, the Mongol Empire was divided among his sons. Hanuks of Mughaley and Toluy of Mongolia were dominated by the year 1634. In 1634, he was dominated by Manchu Dynasty. In the seventeenth century, Tsarist Russia began attempts to take control of the region. In the eighteenth century, the struggle of Russian and Chinese supporters began in Mongolia. The Mongol princess’s survival as Chinese led to the beginning of the nationalism movement in Mongolia. Christianity began in Mongolia with the activities of the Catholic missionaries. The missionaries defended the independence of Mongolia in the hope of gaining a foothold in the Far East. The idea of ​​independence spread. Twentieth century. In 1912, with the collapse of the Manchu dynasty in China, Mongolian princes declared the independence of Mongolia with the help of the Russians. Mongolians who struggled with the Chinese introduced their independence in 1915 to China. The Chinese-Japanese War initiated a communist movement in Mongolia with underground activity. When Japan entered North China, in 1935-1937 Mongolia was occupied and local muhtar districts were established. With the end of the Second World War in 1945, pro-independence organizations in the country continued their activities in parallel with communism. With the weakening of the organizations fighting against communism, Inner Mongolia became the headman under the rule of China. After the Second World War, in Mongolia, the People’s Republic of Mongolia was established with the advice of the US and Britain. On October 20, 1945, Mongolia, which declared its independence by referendum, was first recognized by the Nationalist China. In 1946, an alliance was signed between the People’s Republic of Mongolia and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In 1961, he was admitted to the United Nations. The collapse of communist governments in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe also affected Mongolia, which was governed by communism. In 1990, the transition to the multi-party system; economic, social and political reforms were made. July 1990 was the first multi-party elections. Russian troops in Mongolia withdrew as a result of the agreement.

Physical Structure

Most of the land of the People’s Republic of Mongolia looks like a highland. Only the Gobi Desert is located in the southeast of the country. The length of the state is 2367 km from east to west and 1258 km from north to south. The north-west of this mountainous country with an average height of 1580 m is higher than in the southeast.

There are many mountain ranges within and within the country. The Tanno-Ola Range rises along the northwestern border with Russia. There are Kentei Mountains in the northeast. In the western interior of the country is the Hangay Mountains. Mongolia and Gobi Altai extend from the west to the southeast near the Chinese border. The highest peak of the Altai, Tabun Bogdo, which is 4653 m high, is located on the first silhouette in the northwest.

The river valleys in the north, especially Selenga and Orhon, are efficient. The Kerulen Valley brings a wide highway to Eastern Mongolia. A large number of salt lakes and rivers that are not out to sea, two-thirds of the territory of the country, is located in the basin that does not drain out in Inner Asia. Only Kerulen and Onon rivers are poured into the Pacific Ocean. Major lakes of the country: Ubas Nor, Hara Usu, Airik Nor, Kirgis Nor and Hubsugul.


In the vast majority of Mongolia, a harsh continental climate with low rainfall and large temperature changes prevails. Rainfall, often in the form of summer rains, ranges from 100 to 300 mm per year in different parts of the country. Light snow with extreme cold creates an important belt that remains frozen in the northern part of the country. The temperature difference is quite large. The average temperature in January in Ulan Bator is -28 ° C and in July it is 18 ° C. The highest and lowest temperatures are even greater. Winter rivers and lakes freeze. Strong dust and sandstorms are seen.

Natural Resources

Except for Gobi, most of Mongolia is grassy and grassy, ​​which allows livestock. The mountains are usually naked, except in the north-west. Most parts of the country have wild animals. Among these large mammal species, sheep, deer, reindeer (especially around the Hubsugul Lake) include some wild camels and horses. All around the marmota (marmota) systemically fished for fur. His discoveries by the Mongol Paleontologists show that there are plenty of dinosaur fossils in the country. Coal, tungsten, copper, molybdenum, gold, tin constitute the underground riches of the country.

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