It is accepted that the history of Mauritania started with the Berbers who came from the north in the 4th century and settled in the lands of present-day Mauritania. When the Zenet and Şanhaca tribes came to this land and joined the Berbers, Mauritania began to strengthen. The Ghana Empire was terminated and Morocco was invaded. In the meantime, the Muslim Arabs came to the region, the Mauritanian administration seized. Thus, from the beginning of the 11th century, the people of Mauritania were honored with Islam and tried to spread Islam.
The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, British and French then attacked and attacked. Lastly, in 1904, French imperialism declared a colonial portrait of Mauritania and crushed the Muslim people until 1958. At this time, Muslims founded the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. France continued its persecution for another two years. The people of Mauritania finally got their independence in 1960, and expelled the French from their homeland. President Ould Daddah, who was appointed to the presidency, was not successful against the guerrillas who were fighting for the independence of Western Sahara. The following year he was succeeded by Colonel Mohammed Mahmud Ould Louly. In the same year, the agreement was signed with the Polisario guerrillas. When Mauritania in 1980 abandoned its rights in the region of Taris al-Gharbia, the region was connected to Morocco. During the administration of Lieutenant Colonel Mohammed Khovna Ould, who assumed the Presidency in 1980, the legal system based on Islam was adopted and slavery was abolished. In 1984, Colonel Muaouya Old Sidi Ahmed seized power with a bloodless coup. The coup attempt against Sidi Ahmed in 1987 ended in failure. In 1989, the black-and-white struggle turned into violent movements. When this fight spread to Senegal, there was a border war between the two countries and diplomatic relations ceased. In 1991, President Sidi Ahmed issued a law that ended the military rule of 13 years. In 1992, the first multi-party elections were held. In the same year, a new diplomatic relationship was established between Mauritania and Senegal.
It is located on a large bulge in the west of Africa. It is adjacent to Morocco in the north, Algeria to the northeast, Senegal to the south, Mali to the east and south. The west is covered by the Atlantic Ocean. Its surface area is 1,030,700 km2. 70% of these lands are desert. The territory of Mauritania, which extends in a wide plain in the northeast and southwest direction, consists of four large highlands. These; Adrar, Tagant, Afollé and Assaba highlands. The eastern region is usually flat, including the Affolé Plateau. There are sand dunes in places. The southern Assaba region is a semi-desert. In Adrar Plateau in the West, the highest place reaches 5000 meters. He draws the border with the State of Senegal, where the country’s only river is named. The coasts are generally flat and unbranched.
Since the eastern part of the country is covered by a part of the Great Sahara Desert, it is under the influence of desert climate and western part of the Atlantic Ocean. The coastal areas and the Assaba Plateau have a soft ocean climate and fertile soil. The average annual rainfall in Adrar Plateau in the north is only 110 mm, while in the south this figure reaches 640 mm. The average temperature is between 0 ° C and 38 ° C in winter and approximately 16 ° C to 50 ° C in summer. The temperature difference between day and night is very high. The temperature at night O ° C can be up to 38 ° C during the day. In the humid region along the Senegal River, the average temperature is 24 to 35 ° C.
A warm and dry country, the vegetation of Mauritania is very weak. The southern regions with semi-desert are covered with undersized plants and bushes. In the northern and eastern regions, which are completely deserted, however, sparse acacia and spines are found.
The underground resources are particularly rich in iron, copper iridium and titanium mines.
Population and Social Life
The population of Mauritania is 2,108,000. Close to 42% of this is very young and under 15 years old. 70% of the total population is formed by Moors (Berbers), 15% by Halphoolloren and 15% by Fulbe, Wolof and Bombars. The population density is 1.6 people per square kilometer. It is mostly crowded between the capital Nouakchatt and the Senegal River. Most of the people are engaged in agriculture, livestock and farming.
Geographically, it belongs to both northern and sub-Saharan Africa, and in terms of culture it is included in both the white Middle East and black Africa. He is a member of Arab Summit and member of African Union Organization. Its ethnic structure is mixed and has a richness in terms of language. The official language is spoken in French, other than Arabic. The various Hassani dialects of Arabic are common. Each tribe also has their own native languages. They have a strong memory and traceability.
The majority of the people, almost all of whom are Muslims, are from the Maliki sect. Islam is very influential in the social life of Mauritania and it provides the unity and solidarity of the people.