When Portugal was opened to the Hind Ocean in the late 15th century, the control of trade was in the hands of the Arabs. In East Africa, Portugal’s goal was to capture the coastal ports from the Arabs and to seize the gold and silver mines.
Mozambique was captured by Portugal towards the 1520s. Every year, Portugal bought tons of ivory. The colony of South America started the slave trade to meet the labor needs of Brazil. However, most of the eastern part of the hands of the UK and the Netherlands, the trade in the ports of Mozambique suddenly fell. Thus, Mozambique entered a period of decline lasting 200 years.

The current borders of the country were determined at the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885. When the European powers shared Africa as a colony, Mozambique was considered an overseas state by Portugal. The country was ruled by a governor appointed from Lisbon. In 1961, Tanganyika (which later constituted a part of Tanzania united with Zengibar, and became a part of Tanzania), began a nationalist movement that targeted Mozambique’s independence after its independence. In 1962, the scattered groups merged under the name of Frente de Libertacao de Mozambique (Frelimo) or Mozambik Freedom Front. Frelimo largely provided external support. In particular, weapons and other military equipment came from Eastern Europe and communist China, while financial aid came from the Organization of the African Union.

When the guerrillas entered Mozambique on September 25, 1964, and attacked the Portuguese military facilities, a riot movement began. After a long struggle, he declared his intention to give the new revolutionary government in Portugal independence in their colonies in Africa in early 1974. Thus, the colonial administration and 10-year guerrilla war, which lasted for 470 years, ended on 25 June 1975. The People’s Republic of Mozambique was established under Frelimo’s political control. Today, it is still ruled by a Marxist-Leninist administration.

Physical Structure

The Coastal Plain contains two-fifths of the territory of Mozambique. To the west of this region is a transition zone consisting of low plateaus and hills with a height of about 150 to 200 meters above sea level. The western parts of the country constitute a third region with an average height of 1050 meters. This region is an extension of the mountainous lands of Rhodesia. The Namuli Mountains, which are 2000 meters high in the northwestern province of Tete, the Gorongossa Mountains in central Mozambique and the Lebombo Mountains along the southwestern border are located in this region.

All the rivers of Mozambique are poured into the Indian Ocean and create an intense network in the country. Large rivers from north to south are Ruvuma, Ligonha, Lurio, Zambezi and Limpopo. Changes in the amount of rainfall make the flow of rivers irregular. Therefore, it is not possible to reach the river regularly.


The tropical climate prevails in Mozambique. There are two seasons per year, one arid and one rainy season. Almost all of the annual rainfall occurs in the rainy season, which lasts from sowing to marta. In this period, the temperature of the monsoon winds and the changing temperatures are high. The temperature on the shore varies between 27 ° C and 29 ° C, with a relative humidity of about 80% in the rainy season. In this part of the plain extending from the shore, rainfall and humidity decrease. But it rises again in the upland plateau. The highest annual rainfall in Mozambique occurs in the northern mountains and along the Rhodesian border with 1650 mm. Two large parts of the interior are quite dry. These are the southwestern province of Gaza and the Zambezi Valley around Tete.

The mild dry season continues from April to September. In this period, the hot water stream of Mozambique flowing from the equator to the south gives an average temperature of 19 ° C to the shore.

Natural Resources

From the coast, in the north and south, there are wild mahuncevizi trees in the interior. Along the coastline, there are mangars (a characteristic plant present in marshes on the tropical sea shores) and coconut trees and palm trees, especially outside the river roads. Other trees are cedar, ebony, ironwood and sandalwood. Bamba and spear on the banks of the river, rubber vines grow in the forests.

In Mozambique, it is possible to come across a wide variety of animals. Most species of zebra and gazelles, buffaloes, lions and leopards are found all over the country. Crocodiles and hippos are available in rivers and lakes. In the north and northeast there are rhinos, giraffes on the South African border.

The underground wealth of the country consists of coal and boksite.

Population and Social Life

More than 98% of Mozambique’s population is made up by the Americans. The rest is Europeans, Indians, East Asians and hybrids (African-European mix). 90% of the population is an agricultural worker. Indians and East Asians have been preoccupied with trade since.

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