The information about Burmese history is old. Mongolian and Turkish tribes from Central Asia migrated here. Burma was occupied by Kublai Khan in 13th century. Then, under the rule of various dynasties, the Burmese, which became a country with high prosperity in the middle of the 19th century, was invaded by the British in 1882. The British first tied Burmania to the other colony of India and then directly tied to them (1886). During the Second World War, the Japanese occupied the country, and in the end of the war that ended with the defeat of the Japanese (in 1945), by initiating a war of independence against the British, it declared its independence on 4 January 1948 by the withdrawal of the British. A constitution and a socialist administration were established in 1974. In 1988, the military administration that suppressed power by suppressing the pro-democracy movement dispersed all parties. General Saw Maung, who was at the helm of the military administration, had to leave office due to a nervous disorder in 1992. He was replaced by General Tan Shwe (1993).

Physical Structure

It does not have a simplicity in terms of its physical characteristics. Very high mountains, high plateaus, alluvial plains are all available. The last extensions of the Himalayas, the world’s highest mountain range, are located in the west of Burma. These mountain ranges are suddenly splayed to the north of the country and become hills up to 5000 meters high. It goes down to the south. It takes the name Arakan Mountain Range. While the southwestern branch of these mountain ranges reaches the sea perpendicularly to the sea, many small islets form into the sea as an extension of these mountains. Transportation to ships is not favorable as the sea in this region is shallow and rocky.

The north of the mountain ranges in the west constitutes the northern part of the country, and in the region the mountains reach to 6024 meters as the highest point of the country on the hill of Theing-Wang Razi. The Irrawadi River, which originates from this region, flows into the Gulf of Bengal by crossing the country with a length of 2200 km from one end to the other. The basin formed by this river with its arms constitutes more than half of the territory of the country.

Despite the rapid flow in the north, the Irrawadi River, which has slowed down rapidly, has a length of 1450 kilometers from the south. It forms a large delta where it is poured into the sea. This river has an important place in the country’s life due to its convenient transportation.

The Chan Plateau, which crosses the country from north to south, and after the Irrawadi Basin in the middle, passes from north to south in the east. The height of this plateau is between 1000-2000 m, while the northern part of the plateau is covered with arid, naked and non-arable land. The southern part is decorated with rich tropical vegetation. The most important river in the Chan Plateau where there are many rivers is the Salven River, which is 1700 km long in this country. The Chan Plateau reaches to the sea on the steep slopes of the Malaka Peninsula in the south. This plateau to the sea to reach the sea as well as in the western mountain ranges of the islands in the form of rock islets that block the course.


The monsoon climate, which is present in all Southeast Asian countries, is dominant in Burma. Since the country is on the crab cycle, it is dry in the winter through the sea to the sea; In summer, the rainy monsoon winds blowing from the sea to the land is the most important element in the country’s climate. The high plateaus in the east of the country and the high mountain ranges in the west affect the distribution of precipitation by region. Most rainfall areas of Burmese; It is located in the western part of the Arakan mountain range and in the Delta Plain and the southern part of the Chan Plain. Average annual rainfall in these regions exceeds 5000 millimeters. There is not much rainfall in the inner regions because of the monsoon winds. The southern regions of the country exposed to monsoon winds are rainy, with annual temperature differences of around 17-39 ° C. The northern part has a relatively dry and cold climate.

Natural Resources

Burma is a country rich in natural resources. 60% of the country is covered with tropical forests, such as elephants, tigers, lions and monkeys. In the country where the underground riches are quite high, there are mineral resources such as oil, natural gas, tin, zinc, lead, tungsten, gold, silver, copper and bead. There are plenty of fishes in rivers and seas.

Population and Social Life

The population, which is 43.466.000, constitutes different ethnic groups. The most important of these ethnic groups are; Burmese, Karen, Glory, Shin, Scrub and Rocks. However, the Burmese constitute 74% of the population. In addition, immigrants from Bangladesh, India and China constitute a small part of the country population.

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