According to research, the first known history of Nepal, M.S. In the 4th century, it was started with the establishment of small Indian principals. Many small principalities in Nepal have survived until the middle of the 18th century. For the first time in 1769, Gürkalar, one of these principalities, took control of the lands of Nepal. The first Gürka king Pritvi Narayan, after capturing the Kathmandu region in Nepal, Gürkaların golden era has occurred. After Narayan, the children, who replaced him, extended Nepal lands to Sutley River in the west, Ganges Plain in the south and Tibet in the north.

The wars with the British between the years 1814-1816, resulted in the defeat of Gurkan. From then on until 1846, the country became a field of struggle for noble families. At that time, the Rana family established superiority over others. Nepal remained under the control of this family until 1951. In the same year, King Tribhubana, a member of the Shah family, took control of the country and passed into a cabinet government. The Constitutional monarchy declared. After his death, his son Mahendra made major changes in the country. In 1962, the new constitution was announced. In 1972 with Mohendra’s death, his son Bir Bihram Shah became the giant king. The country remained in internal events, protests and conflicts until 1980. On May 2, 1980, a referendum was accepted as a non-party rule. In 1990 King Birendra A Bihram Shah Deva changed his monopoly of power by changing the policy. With the introduction of Krsna Prasat Bhattanai on April 19, Prime Minister, an independent government was established for the first time in thirty years. The elections were held in April 1991 by moving to a multi-party system. The first democratic government, which was established 32 years after the elections, took office in May 1991.

Physical Structure

Located just south of the Great Himalayan Mountains, between 25 ° 25lik-30 ° 17, North latitudes and 80 ° 6 boy-88 ° 14 ’East longitudes, Nepal has 147.181 km2 lands in approximately rectangular shape. Nepal is divided into three major regions: Tarai, Central Tarai and the Mountain Region.

The Tarai region is located in the south of the country and at the foot of the Sivalık Mountain Range. It is an extension of the Ganges Plain. It is located between Orta Tarai Sivalık and Mahabharat Lekh Mountain Range. The most important feature of this region; swamps, hills and valleys are abundant. The Mountainous Region, which constitutes 65% of the country, is between Mahabharat Lekh and the Himalayas.

The Great Himalayan Mountains, along the northern border of Nepal, have a peak of over 7600 meters, with 23 summits covering the country against the north. The most important of these peaks is the Everest Hill which is the highest point of the world with 8,848 m. In addition, Lhotse, Makdu, Cho Oyu, Manasulu, Annapurna and Dhaulagiri are other important peaks.

There are three large river systems that cut the mountain range from east to west and from north to south. Kamali, Sapt Gandaki and Sapt Kasi. The rivers, all of which originate from Tibet, are very important for Nepal, both economically and strategically.


The climate in Nepal varies depending on the height. The higher the climate, the harder the climate. In the vicinity of Kathmandu, the summers are hot and the winters are cold and hard. The summer months are quite hot in Tarai and mountainous regions.

The eastern part of the country and the western edge are under the influence of monsoon winds, especially during the summer months. While the annual rainfall is about 2500-3800 mm in the Tarai region, this figure decreases to 1200-1900 millimeters in the western hills region. In the country’s warmest region, Tarai sometimes has abnormal temperatures up to 54 ° C.

Natural Resources

The Tarai region, which forms the southern part of the country, is rich in wide plains and agricultural areas and has a lush vegetation. At the same time, marshes, tigers, birds of prey and rhinoceros are abundant. The three major rivers that emerge from Tibet and cut the country mountains from north to south are the most important natural resources. The regions where these three rivers are watered and the eastern and western parts of the country have fertile plains and a green vegetation.

Population and Social Life

A large part of Nepal’s ethnicity is made up of the Mongols and the Indo-European group of people. The location between Tibet and India caused the migration from these regions to end in Nepal.

Due to the existing tribe and caste system, people are in small communities. These small divisions are very important in Nepal’s social and political life. The most influential group is the Brehmen of Indian origin. About 40% of the population of about 19,795,000 is Indians. The second largest community is the Nevas, known as the oldest natives of Nepal. The Kiranti, Magar, Grung and Serpa tribes of Tibetan and Mongol origin can also be considered as the third largest ethnic group.

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