The State of Pakistan is a young state founded in the twentieth century. Pakistan’s history is the same as that of India before August 15, 1947. (See India)

The name kon Pakistan yıl was first revealed in 1940 by Muslim students studying in England. Pakistan, Punjab, Afghan, Kashmir, Sind and Balochistan names coming from the next comes from the name, as a ve clean country enc means. When the Indians tried to get rid of the British sovereignty, Muslims in the region united to form a dominion in 1947. This dominion was included in the British League. M. Ali Jinnah was the leader of Pakistan in these years.

Pakistan was the republic in 1956. Two years later, General M. Eyüb Han took the coup and took control. He was re-elected in 1960 and 1965. When this resigned in 1969, the uprisings began in East Pakistan. Later, General Ağa M.Yahya Han confiscated the administration. As soon as he took the administration, he declared martial law. As a result of the 1970 elections in East Pakistan, the Avami Party achieved a large majority. But one year after the elections, Yahya Khan disbanded the National Assembly. Strikes and riots began to increase in the country. This is why government forces have attacked the East. But soon the eastern supporters of India, the independence of the independence of the state by establishing the Bangladesh State. Also, the collisions were not interrupted. Thousands of people were killed. More than 10 million Oriental migrated to India. Finally, the Pakistan-India war broke out. When the Pakistani troops in East Pakistan were surrounded, the fire-cut was signed. Both sides withdrew their troops. The relations between the two countries were normalized again in 1976.

Meanwhile, Pakistan’s head of the People’s Party of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto came. In 1973, a new constitution was adopted. Pakistan is now called the ”Federal Islamic Republic Pakistan. Bhutto became prime minister the same year.

In June 1977, General Ziya-ul Hak confiscated administration by a military revolution. Bhutto was taken from the prime minister’s office. Previously, Bhutto was responsible for this crime because Bhutto’s political opponent was killed. Due to this murder in 1974, Bhutto was executed in 1979. Pakistan-US relations became tense. After these events, the public reacted to American bases and officials. On the occasion of the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Russia in 1981, the US had to deal with Pakistan. A six-year military and economic assistance program was prepared and signed between the two countries. The invasion of Afghanistan caused two million Afghans to emigrate to Pakistan. In August 1988, in an enigmatic plane crash, President Muhammad Ziya-ul-Hak was killed and Gulam Ishak Khan was succeeded. The left-leaning Pakistani People’s Party won the elections and established the Benazir Bhutto government as the first female prime minister of a Muslim state. After some corruption and lack of internal order, President Gulam Ishak Khan replaced Benazir Bhutto in 1990 and appointed Nevaz Sharif as prime minister. Benazir Bhutto, who won the elections in 1993, was reelected as prime minister.

Physical Structure

Located in South Asia, Pakistan has a surface area of ​​approximately 803,943 km2. It is normally divided into four main regions; Pencab, Sind, Balochistan and the Northwest Border Region.

Most of Pakistan is mountainous. The mountains in the north are quite high and profitable. Tirki Mir Mountain at 7700 m altitude is the highest point of the country. The western regions are a continuation of the Persian Plateau and are full of a plateau. The region is surrounded by mountains. The Persian Plateau is mostly naked and dry, while some regions are wet. The most important thing in Pakistan’s physical structure is the Indus River. The second desert of Pakistan is the Tar Desert in the Pencab region. All the northern mountains of Pakistan are forested land.


The Pakistani climate is generally hot and dry. But in most places the air temperature varies widely. The temperature in the mountains varies depending on the height. Therefore, in all Pakistan, the regions have a climate that can vary between polar climate or extreme hot climate. In the plateaus, air temperature varies from season to season. In June, the air temperature of almost 46 ° C can be reduced to 4 ° C in January-February.

Northern regions are mostly rainfall areas. Therefore, there are forest areas in the south of the Himalayas. Western Pakistan is usually full of green areas. In the south, the Makran coastal zone, Karachi and Hyderabad Ocean climate are under the influence.

Natural Resources

Pakistan’s underground resources are not too rich. More natural gas and iron ore are available. There are also coal, oil, chromite, limestone and gypsum.

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