The available information on the first history of Senegal is very small and it is not certain. For this, it is appropriate to start the Senegal history with the Tekrur Kingdom, founded in the middle parts of the Senegal River in the 11th century. At the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Portuguese from the Europeans first arrived in the country. Then, in the 17th century, the French took control of the region. It remained French West Africa for a while. In 1960 he became independent. After that, he entered into a democratic life under the influence of France. In 1963, a coup attempt was overcome. In 1968 there were conflicts with the workers. Prime Minister Andou became the head of state after President Abdou Senghor retired in 1981. In 1988 he declared the state of emergency and continued his presidency. In 1982, a joint federation with Gambia was established. In this federation, the countries remained independent and merely defended in defense and financial matters. This unity was broken down in September 1989 because of disagreements. The government has made great strides in overcoming internal and external turmoil that have instigated the country to instability. On April 8, 1991, President Abdou brought Habib Thiam to the prime ministry. In 1993, Abdou was elected president again.

Physical Structure

Senegal has a surface area of ​​approximately 197,000 km2. The Republic of Gambia is surrounded by the Senegalese territory along the Gambi River, separating much of its southern part from the Casamance region. Gambia has entered the country for 320 km.

Most of the country has fluctuating land and has an average height of about 200 m. On the foothills of the Fouta Djallon Mountains in the southeast, the altitude is about 500 m and the highest place in the country is these mountains.

The region of Senegambia was cut by four rivers pouring into the Atlantic. Senegal, Saloum, Casamance and Gambia rivers. The Senegal River constitutes the country’s northern borders and is the longest river in the country.

The west coast of the country is eroded by winds and the coastline is partly marshy. Cape Verde is a hilly and rocky region. The rest of it is semi-deserted.


Senegal is divided into three regions with three distinct vegetation, considering the amount of precipitation; The regions of Sahelian, Sudanese and Casamance.

The Sehelian region receives an average rainfall of up to 350 mm. The area is covered with coarse weeds, thorny bushes and acacia shrubs. The southern Sudanese region is about 900 mm. Here the vegetation is thicker and more. Generally, silk-cotton and baobab trees are more numerous and acacia shrubs are larger. In the Casamance region, precipitation ranges from approximately 900 to 1500 mm. The southwest of the country is covered with swamps and tropical forests. Non-forested areas are greenery and abundant rainfall. Cape Verde is a partially deserted and partly rocky and hilly region. The coastline is generally muddy and covered with tropical mangrove forests.

Senegal’s climate presents some contrasts. The coasts and especially the northern part of the Dakar are open to sea breezes and have a sweet climate. The average temperature in January is around 23 ° C. As the North moves closer to the Great Sahara, the temperature increases. In the south of Casamance, humidity is high due to coastal winds.

There are two dry and dry periods in the country. The humid season is more common in the Sahelian region and lasts from June to October. In the Sudanese region, the humid season prevails from May to October and from May to November in Casamance.

Natural Resources

The Senegal, Saloum, Casamance and Gambia rivers, which bring life and vitality around Senegal, have four different areas covered with vegetation. There are tropical forests in the coasts, silk and baobab trees and acacia shrubs in the Sudanese region.

There are not many wild animals in the country. Cattle, sheep and goats are raised more than domestic animals.

Population and Social Life

It has a population of around 7.400.000. The population density is 38 people per square kilometer. Annual average population growth is around 2,9%. Most of the population lives in cities and around 10% of the population is in Dakar. The other major cities of the country are: Kaolack, Thiéc, Rufisque, St. Louis.

Senegal has a mixed ethnic structure and consists of many groups. 37% of the population is Volof, 18% is Serer, 17% is Peul, 9% is Diola and 9% is Mandingos. The remaining 10% are many small ethnic groups.

Volofs constitute the majority of the population and they usually deal with peanut production. The other name of Peullari, who descended from the Kingdom of the Kingdom of Persia, is the Fulanis and they live a nomadic life.

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