Slovenes

Historical

Slovenes, settled in the land where they live in the sixth century. The Slovenians who widened their land, came under the rule of the Bavarian Kingdom in the early years of Samo and later in 740s, in order to escape the pressure of the Avars for not being able to form a state. The Kingdom of Charlemange, which overtook Lombardia (774) and Bavaria (788) and demolished the Avars State, divided the guardianship of the Slovenian voivodes between the Bavarian and the Friuli. Meanwhile, among the Slovenians, Christianity spread rapidly. In the tenth century, the region was first dominated by the Hungarians and then by the Germans. The Germans enslaved the people of the region and placed many Germans in the region. However, as a result of the widespread educational work of the Slovenian intellectuals, many of them Catholic priests, the Slovenians were able to maintain their self-esteem against centuries of German domination. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, peasant revolts broke out in the region. The Turkish invasions, which started after these riots, made the region unsafe. Empress Maria Theresia and her son II. As a result of the reforms of Joseph in the 18th century, the living conditions of the Slovenians have improved to some extent.

The regions where the Slovenians lived were given to Austria in 1814 and fueled national revival. This awakening led the Slovenians to unite with their siblings, the Croats and Serbs. But in 1866 part of Slovenian territory was shared between Italy and Hungary. After the First World War, Slovenian representatives, led by Reverend Korosec, joined the Zagreb National Council in November 1918. This council announced that Slovenia joined the kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians, established on December 1, 1918. But the newly established state could not bring all the Slovenians together. After the referendum in October 1920, the Klagonfurt region was left to Vienna and the Treaty of Rapalio (1920) was left to Istria West Karst and Julius Alps, Italy where around 400,000 inhabitants of Slovenia lived. The kingdom was renamed Yugoslavia after 1928.

During the Second World War, southwest of Slovenia was occupied by the Italians and northeast by Germany. Hungary received Prekomurje, a small region in the north of Mura. During the war there was a series of resistance movements in Slovenia. The most important of these is the resistance of the Liberation Front led by the Communists. After the Allies won the Second World War, Slovenia was returned to Yugoslavia. Meanwhile, Yugoslavia became the Republic in 1945. In the following year, each group that made Yugoslavia became a separate republic under the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The Republic of Slovenia was founded on the lands of East Istria, West Karst and the Julius Alps. In 1954, part of the former Independent Trieste Region joined the territory of Slovenia.

Tito, who was the head of the United Republic, followed a different socialist politics from Stalin. After Tito’s death in 1980, the country was governed by a collective presidential system. The economic and political crisis that started in 1989 caused the deterioration of relations between the republic. In the same year, the reform movements in the eastern bloc were reflected in Yugoslavia. In 1990, the multi-party system was adopted. Slovenia declared independence with Croatia on 25 June 1991. Against this separation, the Federal Army of Yugoslavia entered Slovenia and Croatia. Conflicts were prevented by the joint mediation of Portugal, Luxembourg and the Netherlands. Slovenia, which declared its full independence on October 7, 1991, was recognized internationally in January 1992. Slovenia was admitted to the United Nations in May 1992.

Following the government crisis in the first half of 1992, general elections were held on December 6. Milan Kucan was re-elected for five years, taking about two-thirds of the votes. A new coalition government was established under the leadership of the Liberal Democratic Party, which had the highest number of MPs (January 1994).

Physical Structure

The majority of the territory of Slovenia, between the heart of Central Europe and the Port of Trieste, is mountainous. The Triglav Peak (2684 m), located in the Julia Alps, with steep and beautiful views to the northwest, is the highest point in the country. It stretches across the Austrian border to the Karawanke Mountains. Further south and southeast is the Komnik Mountains. The battlefield, which passes through the country, enters the hilly region after the capital Gjubljana. This hilly region is then replaced by the Pannonia basin where the fertile plains are located.

Climate

Slovenia has a severe continental climate. While the summer months are quite hot, the winter months are cold. Pannonia Plateau in the winter months are a little more violent. Extreme heat and cold is the most important feature of this region. The climate is slightly softer in coastal areas.

Natural Resources Most of the mountainous areas are covered with forests. In forests there are mostly beech, oak and pine trees. There are various mineral deposits, especially coal and mercury.

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