Sri Lanka has been a natural haunt of traders because it is located on the ocean road, between East Africa and South Asia. History of the country 3000 years. The first name of the island was Toprobane, a Greek “copper color”. After the Arab conquests, Arabic was called Serendip, which means in the country of unexpected things Arap. Later, he took the name of Seylan which will be used until 1972. Sri Lanka, which means ”debdebeli, resplendent country mi since then, was the official name of the country. Religious sources; Allahu teala, the father of all people, the first human being created on earth, and the first prophet, Adam, was reportedly sent down from Heaven to this Serendip Island (Ceylon, Sri Lanka).
Today, 75% of the Sri Lankan population, the Sinhaleler BC. They settled in the island in the 6th century BC. They adopted Buddhism in the 3rd century. Then the Tamers came from India.
It is thought that the first foreigners arriving to the island were colonists from Asia, Africa and Europe. These newly arrived colonists dominated the existing fanatics on the island. A.D. In the 12th century, Arab merchants traded with the island people.
The first Europeans came to the island, the Portuguese. In 1508, the Portuguese were taken from the Felemekler (Dutch). In 1796, the British took over the island. Ceylon Island, which had been under British colonialism for many years, became an independent member state in 1948, including the Commonwealth. In 1959, Prime Minister W.R. D. Bandaranaike Sinhala-Tamil. Srimavo Bandaranaike passed. Thus, she became the first woman prime minister in the world. He continued to be prime minister after the 1965 and 1970 elections and finally resigned in 1971. In 1972, it was declared a republic and took the name Sri Lanka.
In 1978, Sri Lanka moved to the presidential system. Junius Richard Jayewardene became president. He was later elected President of Ranasinghe Premadasa. Meanwhile, the increasing disagreement among groups within the country still continues (1994).
In terms of its physical structure, Sri Lanka is an extension of the South Indian Plateau, approximately 35 km away from it and has the Palk Strait. The Palk Strait is just north of the Gulf of Mannar and the narrowest part is about 32 km wide. Located on the northwestern shore of the island, Adamıns Bridge, which connects Sri Lanka to Asia, is located just west of the island of Mannar.
The length of the island of Sri Lanka is approximately 435 and 225 km in length. The surface area of the island is 65,610 km2.
There are three main geographical regions in the country; coastal zone, central southern zone and Hatton Plateau.
The central south of the island is mountainous and most peaks have a height of 2100-2500 m. Pidurutalagala, which has a height of 2527 m, is the highest point in the country. The lower parts of these mountains are forested hills and wooded highlands. The southern coastal part of the island is quite flat and wide. There are 16 rivers flowing from the Sri Lankan mountains and each is at least 96 km long. The longest are the Mahaweli Ganga, which is about 182 km long, and the Aruvi Aru, 167 km long. The coast of the country is generally covered with sandy beaches and there are coral reefs.
Sri Lanka’s climate is warm and humid. The average temperature in low areas is about 27 ° -28 ° C. Humidity is 70% during the day and up to 90% at night. In high areas, such as Nuwara Eliya, the average temperature is 16 ° C. From May to September, from the southwest and from October to February, the Monsoon winds blowing from the northeast brings cool rainfall to the country. March and April are the hottest months. Between monsoons, the climate is mild and short-term precipitation continues. The average annual rainfall in Sri Lanka is approximately 1020 mm in the dry areas in the north, while it increases up to 5080 mm on the eastern slopes of the mountains.
The western part of the country is usually forested. Non-wooded parts are very grassy and grassy. The mountains and slopes of the mountains are usually covered with tea plants and forests and highlands.
Sri Lanka is one of the most beautiful countries of the world in terms of natural scenery. Lush forests and vegetation, colorful flowers and birds, and many species of animals are the beauties of watching the country. Almost everywhere in the country is covered with tropical forests. In these forests, generally very precious trees such as teak, ebony, iron, and hind tree trees are quite common.
More than 3000 species of flowers and grass drowned the country into the plant world. Usually grows a lot of flowers such as orchid, jasmine, flowering plant (Bougainvillea), amber flower, croton, large red-leaved plant (Poinsettras), lanthanum, bloodshed, swordfish (partridge almonds), marigold, narcissus, petal and water lily .